Nina Ananiashvili took first steps towards ballet art at the age of 10. She studied at Tbilisi choreographic school, in the class of Tamara Vikhodtseva. In 1977 she pursued her education at Moscow choreographic school, under tutorship of prominent pedagogue Natalia Zolotova.

In 1987-2004 she was prima-ballerina at Moscow Bolshoi Theater and under guidance of outstanding ballerina Raisa Struchkova, she produced and performed all roles from classical ballet heritage. First season of Bolshoi Theatre turned out triumphant for her. She performed Odette-Odile (Swan Lake) in Germany, Hamburg, during the Bolshoi Theater tour and received 30 minute non-stop audiences’ ovation after the performance.

Nina Ananiashvili is the only ballerina honored with four most prestigious international ballet awards: Varna (Bulgaria) X International competition gold medal (1980), Moscow IV International Competition Grand Prix (1981), Moscow V international competition gold medal (1985), Jackson (USA) III International Competition Grand Prix (1986).

Performing with Andris Liepa in Balanchine’s Theater- New York City Ballet, in 1988 is regarded as milestone in her career. She was the first dancer from the former Soviet Union, which was invited to the theater and was given leading parties in Balanchine ballets Symphony in C, Raymonda Variations and Apollo. She also performed with the Royal Ballet in England (Covent Garden), Royal Danish Theatre, St. Petersburg's Mariinsky Theatre. In 1993-2009, Nina Ananiashvili was guest prima-ballerina at American Ballet Theatre (ABT). Above that, she danced in Sweden, Norway, Portugal, Finland, Bavaria, Monte-Carlo, Birmingham, Boston, Tokyo and other ballet theaters.
 From September 2004, Nina Ananiashvili is artistic director at Z. Paliashvili Tbilisi Opera and Ballet Theater, as well as principal at V.Chabukiani choreographic state school.

In the period of 10 theater seasons, under guidance of Nina Ananiashvili, up to 60 ballet performances and miniatures were staged at Tbilisi Opera and Ballet Theater. The theater's repertoire includes both new choreographic versions of classical ballets, as well as George Balanchine, Sir Frederick Ashton, August Bournonville, Jiri Kylian performances. Alexei Ratmansky, Alexei Fadeechev, Yuri Possokhov, Trey McIntyre, Stanton Welch, JormaElo and other choreographers eagerly collaborate with theater. Ballet performances gained great success on tours in the United States (2007, 2008 and 2010), Japan (2007, 2010, 2012), Egypt, Italy, Spain, Estonia, Taiwan, Ecuador, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Ukraine and Belarus.

In 2008, Tbilisi Opera and Ballet Theater Company were awarded with prestigious Herald Angels award at Edinburgh International Festival. In 2012, 30th anniversary of Nina Ananiashvili’s stage work was marked, with participation of world ballet stars.

Nina Ananiashvili has been invited as jury member and staging choreographer to various theaters around the world. Together with Alexei Fadeechev, she staged several ballet performances at Tbilisi Opera and Ballet Theatre: Minkus' Don Quixote , Glazunov Raymonda the third act, Herold and Hertel La Fille mal gardée . She also staged new choreographic version of Toradze’s Ballet Gorda (choreography by Vakhtang Chabukiani). In 2012, Nina Ananiashvili staged Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite and Les Sylphides at Beijing Dance Academy, while in Lisbon Ballet School Minkus' Don Quixote suite. In 2014, she staged Vakhtang Chabukiani’s Laurencia at Minsk Bolshoi Theater. 
Nina Ananiashvili is honored with title of People's Artist of Georgia (1989) and Russia (1995), Zurab Anjaparidze and Rustaveli State Prize (1993), The Presidential Order of Excellence (2010). She was awarded with the State Prize of the Russian Federation - For the Merit to the Fatherland (2001). Ananiashvili is the first ballerina holding Russian national prize "Triumph" for achievement in art (1992). American Biographical Institute granted her the title of Lady (1997). She was awarded with the International Prize Golden Goddess (1999) set by successor of Royal family of France- Princess Marie de Bourbon. She is named as Dance Magazine Prize winner (2002). Nina was elected as United Nations Goodwill Ambassador in Georgia (2007) for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. President of Italy awarded prima ballerina with Italian Solidarity Medal of Honor (2011).